Magyar connections to the Geographical Names
of the British Isles
The following geographical names form only a Baedeker-like list. Even so they contain enough similarities with Magyar mythology and language to warrant further research into this subject.
Aesica is the name of a stronghold and contains the Magyar word ős (ancestor).
Aran is a mountain. The Magyar river, mountain and county name, Aranyos, is identical to it and it is connected to the word arany (shine in ancient times, now gold).
Armagh is a stronghold, built in the fifth century. According to legend, it was built by queen Macha. Her ancestor, the fairy, Macha, bore twin boys from her marriage to a mortal. The Magyar, or Makar origin legends are based upon the twin sons of Magor Sungod. The names and the twins point to a common origin of this legend. According to this legend the Irish society originated itself from the fairy-folk just as did the Magyar.
Avebury famous for its stone circles. The island’s first agriculture was practiced near the Windmill Hill (Szélmalom domb). Silbury’s hill was 50 ft. high. It is affiliated with the many Szil place names we discussed in connection with the Sarmatian-Magyar presence in the Carpathian Basin. The word szil belongs in the same word-group as szél (wind). For this reason, I believe the name Windmill Hill is a later translation of the szélmalom domb at Silbury or Szélvár (Castle of the Wind).
Avon is near Bath. These are related to the words év (circle) and víz (water).
Ay.... word particle is present in several geographical names. Its meaning in Old English is yes, good, an affirmative answer. Its reciprocal is the Magyar jó with the same meaning.
Aysgarth Force is the name of a waterfall. The Magyar words of jó and kert carry the same form and meaning.
Ure valley is near the Yorkshire Dells. The first word seems to be connected to the Magyar Ur word, meaning Lord. (We find a similar meaning in the words Altai and Ural, which translate into “the lowlands call the mountains Lord” or the mountain rules the lowlands.)
Derivatives of the Magyar word, Bál:
Bala is a lake near the base of the Aran and Berwyn mountains, in NW Wales. In Hungary Lake Balaton bears the same name. Both are derived from the Palóc Bál, Béla, the name of their Sungod.
Bala is a town at the base of the Aran and Berwyn mountains, at the southern end of lake Bala.
Ballabeg, the 1000 ft. high Round Table (Kerek Asztal) is a backdrop to ancient mythology. I connect the first syllable of this name with the name of the Sungod Bál or Béla
South Barrule, Dalby, Glen Maye are famous for their waterfalls
Bally Namallard and Bellanaleck are locations of lakes. The name Bel and leck (luk, lok) words are identical in form and meaning. Kesh, Lough Erne, Lisnakee are in this region also. Kesh is related to the Magyar kis (little) and the name of the city of Kassa.
Balmoral is a castle. The highest elevation of the region is the 3786 ft. high Locknagar mountain.
Belfast is the capital of Ireland.
Belas Knap is a 1000 ft. high, Neolithic stone hill with an ancient chambered burial place.
Banna, or Magna lies north of castle Thirlwall, and completely encircles Hadrian’s Wall. The Magyar words tér-túr carry the same meaning: the Magyar fal and the English wall belong in the same category. We may translate the meaning of this word as circular wall, or térfal (archaic use), körfal in Magyar. Banna itself bears relationship to the Pannonian culture sphere.
Bath is the name of a healing spa from ancient times. Its name is related to the Magyar víz, English water. It belongs into the same word-group as do Palestine’s settlement-names beginning with Beth, Bath, meaning water, and the geographic names, beginning with the B-S consonantal syllables. All these locales are connected with water.
Bosham, is a peninsula stretching far into the sea.
Boston, has the best harbor of the region.
Bude is a recreational area near water. Its name is part of the above. It is also connected with the Magyar capital cities of Buda and Pest, which were built on the Danube and has several important hot-water springs, so their names are without doubt connected to the word víz (water).
Caerleon is a city. Its first syllable is identical with the Magyar kör (circle).
Camlough mountain’s name is related to the Magyar kan, kam (male, a protruding part), the lok and kamlik (chimney).
Cornwall’s name and the symbolism of the region brings this name in connection with the Magyar kör (circle) with the meaning of Körfal (circular wall).
Deva is a city. The name is identical with the Magyar city of Déva.
Hale’s name is connected with the words hely (place) and kör (circle).
Hunstanton is situated on England’s eastern, south-eastern shores. Its name contains the hun and „ton” tanya, names. The former is the known name Hun, the latter means a holy place, a residence, a settled habitat. The last syllable (stan) may be also a form of stone (ME, OE stan).
Kennet district’s hills are the conical hills of Avebury, and Silbury. A place named Long Barrow near Western Kennet is a 350x8 ft. burial place with 30 graves from the early Stone Age. It is England’s largest burial place with chambered graves. Malmsbury is nearby, once a residence of king Athelstan. The material of this excavation site is important from a Magyar point of view.
The 374 ft. White Horse of Uffington dates to the 5-4th centuries B.C. It is also believed to be the totem-animal of the Iceni people who flourished in the 2-1 centuries B.C. Many other horse figures can be found on the British Isles, such as the representations of Cherhill, Pewsey, Alton Barns but these all date from the 18-20th centuries A.D. and show the tenacity by which ancient symbols survive.
Figure 29. The white horse of Uffington.
St. Machar’s church in Aberdeen was built in the sixth century A.D., but its base is an ancient place of worship. The Machar name is without doubt connected with the name of Magyar, or Makar Sungod.
The Valley of Manger is here and in it the Dragon Hill; now it is believed to be connected with St. George, but this name leads us into greater antiquity and contains the name of the God, Mén. Manger’s name means Ménkör, the Circle of Mén and it is identical in concept with Menhirs, the chorea of various sites. The nearby Wayland Smithy’s vaulted graves are from 2500-2000 B.C.
Mousa’s castle was built without any mortar; its walls are five ft. wide. I don’t have the timeframe within which it was built. The name is identical with the name of the Magyar county and city of Moson.
Oban is in the Grampians and contains the name of the Magyar Pannon people and it’s title of nobility. The O particle means ancient in the Magyar language.
Omagh Tyrone is a town in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland. Tyrone’s name is part of the T-R word-group of the Arthurian legends. The name of Omagh means Ancient Mag in Magyar.
Orme Head in Wales contains the Magyar word orom meaning the peak of a mountain.
Perth is called „the fair city” or white city. This name belongs into the B-P — R-L word-group of the Palóc in which the word béla means white light. It is located on the banks of the river Tay and is a variant of the té-lé word-cluster, which means liquid in Magyar.
Rufus’s stone commemorates king William’s death during a hunting mishap in 1100; his death was caused by an arrow. In the early centuries of Roman Catholicism such hunting mishaps were frequent in Hungary too, in which the boar seems always to have a key role.
Unst is the world’s northernmost city
Bann is a river near Londonderry, and the Giant’s Causeway. The several town names within this B, P-N word-group all contain the name of our Pannonian indigenous population, the Pannon.
Don is a river, and its affiliation with the words Don-Duna-nedű (liquid) were discussed above.
The Fens is a territory of 1400 square miles near the rivers „Wash,” Ouse, Nene, Welland and Witham. Wash is related to the Magyar word víz (water), the Ouse is a historical Magyar name, Nene means a feminine concept, Welland carries the name of Vilona, mother goddess of the Palóc. The island of Ely is situated in a marshy region and belonged to St. Ethelreda in the 7th century, who was the queen of Northumbria. Northumbria contains the Hun name, the ia word ending meaning jó, jav (good, property). Ethelreda’s name leads to the ancient history of the Magyars, but it is also connected with the name of Etelköz, a geographical name of the later Magyar historical times. The ancient memories have been Christianized later, but it is clear that the octagon base of the original, towerless temple is the remnant of a pre-Christian structure and religion.
Folyle’s region is rich in rivers, folyó in Magyar. St. Columba’s stone is here, upon which two ancient footprints can be seen. This stone may have been the coronation stone of the O’Neills who were kings of Ulster. The Giant’s Causeway is here along with Ireland’s most ancient castle, Grianan of Aileach, the capital city of the O’Neills. The causeway is composed of columns, a natural basalt formation. The many names beginning with Bal are remarkable, like Ballingtoy, Ballycastle. Further names are Cushendun, Cushendall, Kesh, White Island. These belong yet to another Magyar groups word-cluster, the K-S ethnic word-group. The town-name of Kesh is related to kese meaning pale, white. This etymology is supported by the fact that they are near White Island. This ethnic group’s mythology contained the legend of the golden fleece.
Lagan, Leven, Lledr, Lune are rivers and the names connected with the Magyar word for liquid (lé).
Leach river’s name has not been explained as yet; it is supposed that it may mean something wet, a wet place. Magyar lék (leak) and the above lé is related to this.
Mersey is a frequent Magyar last name.
Nadder and Bourne rivers empty into the Avon and Stonehenge is nearby. At a place called Old Sarum the remnants of prehistoric structures can be found. Nadder’s name is related to the Magyar nedű (liquid) the word Bourne belongs to the Avar cultic B-R vocabulary, where the word bor reflects the name of God Bar-ata and mother goddess Bar-anya; the latter is still the name of a county. The word Boristhenes was the name of a river of Scythia. The word vár (castle) is also part of this word-cluster. Sarum’s Magyar variant is sár meaning shine and was discussed in relation of the Sarmatians. All these names are logical part of Stonhenge’s astronomical role.
Neb is a river with Ballbeg, the Round Table, Glen Maye, Mull, or Meayll Circle at Cregneish is on its banks, with and ancient burial place with six chambers. The word Neb is identical to the Magyar nap (sun) which is again a natural consequence of the fact that ancient astronomical places are nearby.
Nevern is a river. On its banks, near Stonehenge, there is a richly engraved 12.5 ft. Celtic cross. For this reason it may be connected with the Magyar word nap since the cross is an ancient sun-symbol since the most ancient of times.
Newport — the last particle of this name is identical with the Magyar part which means shore.
Ugie is a river in the Grampian region. It can be connected with the Magyar geographic locations beginning with the syllable Ug, like the name of county Ugocsa. It is also connected with the word Ük meaning ancient. The Magyar river Bug is a B-variation of these.
Nith is the river of the southern part of the uplands. It is reminiscent of the Magyar nyit (to open), Nyitra county and river.
Ogwen river and lake is near lake Bala in Snowdon. Its Welsh name is Evyri. Its first syllable,Og is the same as the Magyar óg meaning the highest point of a dome where light comes in.
Ore is a river on the SW. shore, and the island of Thanet is here. Ore’s name is related to the Magyar word őr (guardian), which does fulfill any river’s defensive position. Tanet’s name contains the Magyar God’s and ancestor’s name Tana, its reciprocal is also connected with the concept of water (nedű).
Ouse flows in middle England and another Ouse in Sussex. Úz is a Magyar historical name, ős means ancestor.
Roe flows near Londonderry. This monosyllabic word contains the Magyar word ró, which means to carve out something, like the river carves its own path. Mythology of the region may give further clues.
Sark is called by the local inhabitants, who don’t speak the Magyar language, the jewel of the Channel Islands. Here we have to deal again with its ancient meaning, which is related to the Magyar ék (wedge, jewel), sarok (corner), and sár (shine) words.
Seiout is a river in Wales and this name is related to the Magyar saj, sajó (to flow).
Sid (pronounced sí) means sliding (sí, siklás) in Magyar.
Soar means száll (to fly) in Magyar. Linguistically the two words are identical. The name of the rivulet Szele bears an identical form and meaning.
Spey is a river in the Grampian territory, which is rich in Magyar related names.
Stour rivers are in Essex and Kent. It is a known fact that the names of Kent’s rivers belong into the oldest linguistic strata of the region. I believe it is an S variation of the T-R word-group. The Magyar river name Túr, a subsidiary of the river Tisza, is part of this word-group.
Taf in S. Wales, another Taff river also in Wales is connected with the rivers Severn and Rhymney The Magyar geographical names Tab, Fót, Fadd, Fátra belong in the same category.
Tavy and Tawe rivers are identical with the Magyar word tavi (from the lake).
Tay flows through central Scotland into the sea. The Magyar words té and lé (liquid) belong in this word-group.
Tees is a river in Northern England, which empties into the North Sea. Its meaning may be connected with the above. Its present day pronunciation seems to be connected with the Magyar words tíz (ten) and tűz (fire).
Teme, Thames, Temes, are identical to the Magyar river name Temes in Erdély (Transylvania) and all are related to the word nedű (liquid), as its reciprocal form.
Ure and Yore rivers flow in the county of Yorkshire and are related to the Magyar Úr (Lord) and Jár (to walk) and are part of the Jász cultic vocabulary.
Thourne, Tand, Trent river-names are part of the T-R word-group. The Magyar túr means to dig and we already mentioned the river Túr on the great plains of Hungary.
Tweed is a river of Scotland and is listed as of unknown origin. Several Magyar possibilities can be offered and this needs further research.
Tyne flows in the region of Lothian and Northumberland. Again the Magyar té and lé (liquid) words come to mind. The name Humber was discussed earlier.
Usk — Caervent, Caerleon localities are situated on the banks of this river in S. Wales. The syllable caer is part of the Magyar K-R word-group where the words circle and city, any circular structure (kör) belong. Its Latin name is Isca Silurum and it was the second legion’s territory. Usk is related to the Magyar ős, úz (ancient and also the name of a people; presently it is a last name). Isca in Magyar vocabulary means ancient stone (ka), the Sil syllable is identical to the city of Szil (pron. Islands and other natural formations.Sil) in Hungary; its history highlighted by Sarmatian presence.
Severn river’s history we already discussed in connection with Habren. It flows near Gloucester. The river Hull empties into it and nearby is the castle and city of Hull. Considering the legend of this river, we safely give this name the Magyar meaning of “to fall” (like a leaf from the tree).
Whitham’s first syllable means white, the second syllable is identical with the Magyar ham, hon, hun (ashes, home, and the Hun) names. Its meaning is White home, White-Hun. (Fehérhon Fehérhún); the first meaning is also connected to the English hamlet, which means an enclosed settlement.
Wye originates from Wales and empties after 130 miles into the Severn, the ancient Habren. Wye means váj, to carve, and the Severn-Habren connection was discussed earlier (hab=foam, water).
Yare river gave its name to the city of Yarmouth in SE. England. Its name is connected with the Magyar word of jár (to walk) and it is a part of the Jász (Ion, Iasy) cultic vocabulary.
Yeo is a river in SE. England and its name is identical with the Magyar word jó (good) which is also a part of the Jász cultic vocabulary and a west word-group.
Yore is a river in NE. England, in Yorkshire. Its name is as above in the case of Yare river. Dale is a flatland next to the river and is part of the T-R/L word-group and the Magyar word tál (plate) Considering that because of its flatness it is also unshaded, sunny, this word may also be connected with the Magyar word dél (shiny).
Ystwyth is a river in central Wales. Several Magyar linguistic connections can be offered and further research is indicated.
Ythan is a river in Scotland and it is famous of its pearl bearing mussels. Further research may yield a lot of information about the origins of these two latter river-names.
Islands and other natural formations.
Barra is the largest island of the Hebridees; Kisimul castle is located here. One of its hills is called Ben Heaval. The word ben means mountain, the bán a lofty social standing. Its reciprocal is nap, fény (sun, shine). Magyar ancestors always originated their own name and every important, life-giving substance on which their life depended, from the name of the sun. The word bán originally meant man, son or a reflection of the sun in the Pannon vocabulary, as its reciprocal form indicates.
Colonsay and Oronsay islands grow rare orchids. The first syllable of these names is connected with the Magyar words kör (circle) and őr (guardian), orom (elevated location, mountain peak), the second syllable with saj (river, water). In case of an island, the water is truly encircling the earth.
Gogmagog Hill’s name contains our origin legends and these names contain the memory of its ancient inhabitants.
Hengistbury Head is the name of a narrow land-bridge on which early Neolithic habitations and defense structures are found. The rivers Avon and Stour are flowing here which we discussed in the above.
High Tor is a 400 meter high limestone formation. The word Tor could mean either a natural formation such as this or a round hill as much as a built structure. In either case it is a male symbol in Magyar mythology.
Holy Island is connected with Anglesey through a narrow strip of land. Its ancient history is unfamiliar to me, but as a holy island its name probably goes back to the most ancient times.
Iona island bears the name of the Jász, Ion group. It is a burial place. Its connection with the Jász has been discussed earlier. The word gyász (mourning) is part of the Jász cultic vocabulary.
Islay and Jura islands have the most ancient Celtic crosses. The word Jura is a Magyar geographical name.
Kew is an island in the Thames. It is noted for its botanical garden. Considering that it is an island in a river the kő (stone) affiliation is acceptable.
Magee island is the birthplace of many legends and cradles many caves and megalithic tombs. It carries Magor Sungod’s name. The discussion of these legends would fill a separate volume.
Man: this island has been inhabited since Mesolithic times. Its round wood-huts are known. The Romans were never able to occupy it. Its language is called manx and is almost extinct, only a few names remained. The world’s oldest known parliament is here. The Manx cat (which has no tail) originates from here. Their fences are formed by living fuchsia hedges. It is a pre-Celtic habitation. The name of the island and the name of the language contains the god name Mén of its pre-Celtic inhabitants. The round huts are peculiar to the ancient Magyar “sun-houses” (5).
Pen Caer is an island, which is rich in prehistoric burial sites; the graves are chambered graves. The Pen syllable preceding place names is frequent in this region, which points to the Pannon cultic vocabulary and the name of shine and sun (fény, nap). Considering the meaning of the Celtic crosses this name (nap kör = sun circle) is logical.
Porth Oer is famous for its whistling sands. The name is related to the Magyar words part and őr (port and sentry, guardian). Further we find Porth Isgadan, Iche and Golmon. The name Iche is identical to the name of the Ika township and castle in Erdély (Transylvania).
Scilly’s islands are in Cornwall (150-200 islands) and all hold prehistoric graves. Once the famous Cornish tin-mines may have been here. This name through the name of the Siculs of Hungary, and later through the name of Sicily is connected to the Magyar szik word meaning sprout, salt and the Szikul-Székely nation name.
Skye, south of it, the following islands can be found: Eigg, Muck, Rhum and Canna. All these have Magyar counterparts, such as Szik (as above), Ég (heaven), mag and makk (seed and acorn) and kan (male). Rhum contains the M-R word element of Mármaros.
Sheathland, or Zetland is an island. The Ronas hill is its landmark, from which a midsummer night can be beautifully observed. The town of Sumburgh’s name seems connected with the Magyar words szem (eye, seed), szemlél (to observe) and vár (castle). People who observe the midsummer night from here gave this name very logically to Sumburgh. This name’s Magyar meaning is “Observation Castle”.
Thanet is an island amidst marshes. It is connected with the Magyar name Tana and the words for settlement and water (tanya, nedű).
A town’s name in Anglesey:
I leave its historical identification to the future.
Concerning the place name Rheged, quaint as it may sound, it may follow the same construction as was shown in connection with the word Borsod, which signified a place or seat of the knight Bors. Rheg-ed can signify a country, a country of “rege” i.e. a place where the regős related “rege”. The construction using the “d” suffix is quite common in old Hungarian that has survived to this day, viz., Nagyvár-ad. It is noteworthy that in both instances the word coinage using the suffix “d” took into account the laws for matching vowels of the Magyar language. Vowel matching dictates that the root word’s vowel – whether front or back vowel – be harmonized through the use of a similar class of vowel when affixing a suffix thereto.
The Certified Stone Age Settlements of Somogy County, Hungary
Andocs, Alsónyíres, Balatonboglár, Balaton Endréd, Balatonkeresztúr, Balatonkiliti, Balatonlelle, Balatonszentgyörgy, Bonnya, Böhönye, Bõszénfa, Csákány, Csokonyavisonta, Ecseny.Felsõsegesd, Fonyód, Gamás, Gölle, Gyöngyösmellék, Igal, Inke, Kadarkút, Kapoly, Kaposhomok, Kaposvár, Kastélyosdombó, Kánya, Kéthely, Kõröshegy, Lábod, Lengyeltóti, Libickozma, Mernye, Mozsgó, Nagyatád, Nagybajom, Nagyberki, Nágocs, Németegres, Orci, Pamuk, Ságvár, Simongát, Somogyaszaló, Somogybabod, Somogyszentinmre, Somogyszil, Somogyszob, Somogyvámos, Somogyvár, Szántód, Szenna, Szigetvár, Szólád, Tab, Taszár, Torvaj, Tótszentgyörgy, Vásárosbéc.
Few people may know that the American Air Base in Taszár is in a town that was already well developed in the Stone Age and has been inhabited since.
Ancient settlements of the Carpathian Basin.
|AGE AND PLACE||DWELLINGS||OBJECTS USED|
|500.000 Vértesszöllõs||Cave||Hearth, stone tools|
|70.000 Ohábaponor||Cave||stone tools|
|70.000 Érd and Tata||Cave||Hearth, stone tools, (42 varieties), Very fine workmanship|
|36.000 Szeleti culture||Cave||hearth with smoke-stack, stone quarries, stone tools|
|30.900 Istállóskõ||Cave||stone and bone tools, flutes with 5 holes|
|30.000 Zemplén||dug-in houses and above the ground houses||Mining, use of mineral baths|
|18.600 Ságvár||dug-in houses and above the ground houses||hoes made of antlers|
|17.400 Ságvár, a continuation of the above. Similar settlements in W. Europe 8000 years later||houses on pillars||hoes made of antlers, stone knives with handles, female and animal figurines, geometric designs on bones, dried meats|
|7.000 Gorzsa||town(s) granaries, a specific type of roofing which is still used, the walls were painted in red||the very representative type of Hungarian built in stove called kemence, in house sanctuary, altar, chest, shelves, loom, table|
|4,500 Tűzköves||settled agricultural commun. with animal husbandry||they preserved the gourd, wood-, husk utensils of the previous age.|
|5.000 Bodrogköz||as above|
|4.000 Dombóvár||Continued settlements||advanced ceramics|
Count István Széchenyi about the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was founded by Count István Széchenyi. To the dismay of the founder, the Academy soon became the hotbed of anti-Hungarian doctrines in the fields of language, history and their related fields. This process began under Austrian rule during its founder’s lifetime, as the following document sheds light upon this process.
COUNT ISTVÁN SZÉCHENYI SENDS THIS LETTER OF SUPPLICATION TO THE DIRECTORY OF THE HUNGARIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY TO BE READ AT ITS NEXT MEETING.
Even the most fancy words have no value when the facts prove to the contrary.
Even the completely blind can see that our present government is against the best interest of the Magyar people. Our national life is more important than any worldly treasure, even our lives, for us Hungarians. Among Hungarian ruins, nothing remained more intact than her admirable power to live and it is the Academy, which shows that this life is without blemish and it is not extinguished.
And now even this last truly Magyar institute is about to be turned upside down! It is a pity, yes, it is happening! The newly hatched rules of the Academy, which I received recently, are nothing more and nothing less in my eyes than a stabbing wound which leads easily to death.
In such dire circumstances what can I do now when I suffer indescribable spiritual pain, my heart is bleeding and I am half buried; what can I do on behalf of the Academy now, I, who followed the example of my glorious ancestors with reverence and my fortune helped the cause of our language in 1825 with success, with greater success then, since, not only was I blessed with great understanding but sufficient material assets too, without which -- it is a pity -- the most noble is often crushed, even though -- as the present shows -- the Magyar can lift himself again out of the mire, and may adorn again mankind and may also form the most solid base of the Emperor’s chair. I am posing the question: may I not even call out in pain when I am forced to see that our imperial family is led astray by some misguided prejudice and does not pay any attention to, or even willfully lets the Magyar life force shrivel away, since it is forced to give up its own characteristics? This is done even though the young vigor of the Magyars is very much present and the ruling family does not even realize that it cuts the tree from under itself by these deeds.
The honored Academy will decide in this matter — even though as a founder I have some influence — and even though I hold the individuals and the institution itself in high regard — but I do not desire, I do not want, while my head is between my shoulders, my brain has not melted, and the light of my eyes has not been extinguished — thanking all advice — I am the one who is finally going to decide this matter. Because:
I am convinced that our lord, the luminous Emperor Franz Joseph will realize, sooner or later, that the amalgamation and Germanization of the people in his empire is none other than the crazy theory of the present statesmen, which is nothing but bitter self-mystification and so most, if not all, of the people of his empire will look for a way out when a storm arises. Among all these, the Magyar has no relatives in this world, has no other home than the constitutional Paradise between the four rivers and three mountains, where he seeks to reach his abundance, good fortune and happiness under the protection of his dynastic and legitimate King. Therefore the honored Emperor will not suffer — since he was permitted to sink into the most problematic situation, his soul will be enlightened and his most honored mood will be bored enough, — he will not suffer when this time comes, when — which I cannot doubt — they will weaken, murder and dissolve a nation which would even ’catch a bird’ for the Emperor, if he did not stand in the way of her growth, honor and glory, since the Magyar was always a good steward of these values and was always willing to shed his last drop of blood in the past, as in the present and future too, to preserve these values.
I would like to believe that if our young Emperor — if he wants to see and hear — will listen only to the advice of his own brain and heart, and then he could even surpass the glorious days of Corvin.
I see the future in this manner and trust in the decree of Heaven, who punishes nations and Emperors too for their sins, but never lets people full of life be murdered; concerning myself and my rights as a founder and the changed rules of the Academy — with which I could not agree — if there is no escape, I have to accept them as orders without the slightest complaint with a bleeding heart, but unbroken spirit.
At the same time I am sounding a solemn warning according to the glorious principle of „Justum ac tenacem propositi virum” that I shall not pay the interest on the donation which I placed upon the altar of my country, from the moment that I realize that my gift is forced into other channels than the ones which were planned for the Magyar Academy at its founding — because I do not honor pretty words and empty promises — (and) which was also consecrated by law between the nation and the Emperor and which will be honored according to my will by my heirs, who will fulfill this task honestly and faithfully. Should this tragic occurrence come about, against all trust and good hope, I and, according to the foundation letter, my heirs too, will, according to same foundation letter, withdraw our help from the poisoned Academy and we shall use this money for some other noble cause which serves the nation. But the goal for the use of these funds will be set by us and all others will be excused from this task. In this respect we will bend only to material pressure.
To the honored directors
The Ammianus Marcellinus Text
The Hungarian translation of the Ammianus Marcellinus text was published by the Európa Története (The History of Europe) by the Európa Publishing House in 1993 under the title:
AMMIANUS MARCELINUS RERVM GESTARVM LIBRI QVI SVPERSVNT
Vol. I, page 77
”Visoque imperatore ex alto suggestu iam sermonem parante lenissimum meditatnteque allgoqui uelut morigeros iam futuris quidam ex illis furore percitus truci calceo suo in tribunal contorto ‘marha, marha’, quod est apud eos signum bellicum exclamauit eumque secute incondita multitudo uexillo elato repente barbarico ululans ferum in ipsum primcipöem ferebatur, qui com ex alto despiciens plena omnia discurrentis turbae cum missilibus uidisset retectisque gladiis et eurrutis, iam propinquante pernicie externis mixtus et suis ignotusque,…“
This text refers to the happenings of 359 A.D. during the reign of Constantinus II.
Turkologist Gyula Mészáros published a short paper in 1937 titled Jazyg Linguistic relics in Hungary in the Szegedi Alföldkutató Bizottság Könyvtára (Társadalom és néprajzi) Szakosztály Közleményei, no. 31. dealing with the above matter. He remarks that the ”marha, marha“ (…”quod est apud eos signum bellicum….) exclamations of the Jazygs can be pronounced in ancient Iranian mahrka, in the Ossetian: marga. In Hungarian it designates an animal belonging to the bovine race, and also a popular derogatory remark uttered in anger, not unlike the exclamation ”you ox“ in the English language.
Historian Sándor Nagy cites Edward Gibbon’s The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (chapter XIX section 48) where the same quotation of the marha, marha ”battlecry“ appears.
Here I have to stress that these ancient Pannonians used the word marha in the same context as it is used by Hungarians.
The Use of the Names Hungary and Magyar
This author uses the designation Hungary only when designating the present political unit which encompasses the country’s founders, the Magyars and all the other nationalities, whose legal designation came under the title “privileged guests of the Holy Crown.”
In my present paper I use the term Magyar whenever I am talking about their language, or the pre-nation ethnic group of the Magyars.
At this point I also would like to mention that the names Hun, Avar, Pannon, Jász, Székely, Palóc, etc. in this paper denote a pre-nation ethnicity with distinct dialects within the Magyar mother culture and they have been preserved as such to our days.
I. István király rendelkezésérõl.
A nyíregyházi Jósa András múzeum 1969-71 évi évkönyvébõl.
Translation of the title: Decrees of King István I.
Published in the yearbook of The Nyíregyháza András Jósa Museum 1969-71
This segment of the Yearbook deals with the Royal Decrees, crafted upon the suggestion of Pope Sylvester the Second concerning the burning and destroying of all books and manuscripts written in the Magyar and Székely runic characters. András Vitéz, Canon of Rozsnyó and Supreme Judge of the counties of Gömör and Kishont, translated an important document in 1816, which he found in the Library of the Szilassy family. Its library number was: Vatican in 1000 IX. Cal. oct. Die festo lac. Ap. The following paragraph is a direct quotation from this document:
(Vitéz András rozsnyói kanonok, Gömör és Kishont vármegyék táblabírája 1816-ban a Szilassy család levéltárában őrzött értékes oklevelet fordított le. Jelzette: Vatican 1000-ben IX. Cal. oct. Die festo lac. Ap.)
“An ordinance, which became law after the council members of King István I. had signed it, contains the following: Domonkos, Archbishop of Esztergom has published the following decree to be followed within the Magyar Christian Church and to be sent to Pope Sylvester at the same time: According to this decree, which came about at the suggestion of Pope Sylvester, that the ancient Magyar letters and carvings and the pagan mode of writing from right to left, which are used by the Magyars, Székelys and Kuns and also by the Magyar Christian priests, should be stopped and the Latin characters should be used instead. It is hereto ordered that the priests should be thought to use these characters and rewarded for doing so and should be forbidden to use the pagan writing, with the penalty of losing teaching and priestly positions and they should also pay a penalty of 20 gold pensas. Furthermore, all the writings, executed with the pagan script within the church and on the pages of prayer books, should be destroyed and changed to Latin. Furthermore, anyone who brings in a pagan script should be rewarded from one to ten denari. The pagan scripts so obtained should be destroyed by iron and fire, so that, with the destruction of these, the memory and the desire for the pagan religion should come to an end.”
This is the text of the decree by King István I. The writer of the article adds the following:
“We did not know anything about the fact that King István’s above law already dealt with the ancient Magyar letters and carvings which were also used by the Magyar Christian priests and the pagan writing system, the writing from right to left was decreed to be eradicated by iron and fire.
The Magyar people prior to the introduction of the papacy was a literate, well educated people. The priests used the Magyar method of writing, which was composed of ancient, ‘pagan’ script, although many people learned writing only after they had accepted Christianity.” (These data came to our attention through Mr. Sándor Rácz Austria.)
„I. István király tanácsbelieivel aláíratott és törvénnyé lett rendelet, amelynek értelme szerint: Domonkos esztergomi érseknek a magyar keresztény egyháznál leendő keresztülvitele és egyúttal általa Szilveszter pápával leendő közlésül kiadatott: Mely szerint Szilveszter pápa tanácsolása folytán határozatott, hogy a magyarok, székelyek, kunok, valamint az egyházi magyar keresztény papság által is használt régi magyar betűk és vésetek, a jobbról balra pogány írás megszüntetődjék és helyébe a latin betűk használtassanak. Itt rendeltetik, hogy a papság azok használatára jutalmazás mellett betaníttassék és a pogány írástól, valamint tanításától papi állásának vesztése és 20 arany pensasnak büntetése fizetése mellett eltiltassék. Továbbá, hogy az egyházakban található pogány betükveli felírások és imakönyvek megsemmisíttessenek és latinval felcseréltessenek. Valamint pedig azok, akik régi pogány iratokat beadnak, 1-től 10 denárig kapjanak jutalmat. A beadott iratok és vésetek pedig tűzzel és vassal pusztíttassanak el, hogy ezek kiirtásával a “pogány” vallásra emlékezés, visszavágyódás megszüntetődjék.”
Eddig a latinból való fordítás, amihez a cikkíró még ezt írja: Erről eddig mit sem tudtunk, hogy István király fönti törvénye már foglalkozott a magyar keresztény papság által is használt régi magyar betűkkel és vésetekkel, a jobbről balra való „pogány” írás büntetése mellett tűzzel, vassal való kiirtásával.
A magyarság a pápaság behozatala előtt írástudó művelt nép volt, hogy eleinte a papság is a magyar írást használta és régi „pogány” iratai is voltak. Holott számos más nép csak a kereszténység felvétele után tanult meg írni. (Az adatokat Rácz Sándor, Ausztria hozta figyelmünkbe.)
Dr. Fodor Ferenc kéziratos műve
Csallány D. (Ny. Jósa A. Muz. Évk. XI): ‘Ladánybenén, Józsa Pál szülőföldjén, Kada Elek által l909-ben feltárt, hitelesnek látszó szarmata sírból került be a kecskeméti múzeumba, egy különösen gondos iszapolású, sötétebb szürke színű edény, amely kiemelkedik az Alföld megfelelő termékei közül. Ezen az edényen két rovásszöveg látszik, az első az edény égetése előtt, a másik az edény égetése után került az edény oldalára.’
Az edény 12.2 cm. magas, szájátmérője 8.2 cm. Korongolt, római provinciai edény utánzata.
Az edény sajnos a második világháború alatt a Kecskeméti Múzeumban megsemmisült. Erről, a Bács-Kiskunmegyei Tanács Múzeum Ig. részéről H. Tóth Elvira tud. munkatárs értesített: 1980 március 5.-én kelt levelével.
Írta ugyanakkor, hogy tájékozódott Dr. Szabó Kálmán volt muzeumigazgatónál, aki megerősítette, hogy a lelet szarmatakori volt.”
A rovásfelirat 15 betűje Dr. Csallány Dezső feloldása szerint latin és magyar szöveget tartalmaz, melyhez alapul a székely-magyar rovásbetűk szolgáltak. A szöveg tartalma szerint az edényt temetkezésnél használták.
Dr. Fodor Ferenc a további vonatkozásokat közli:
„9. A lelettel foglalkoztak még:
a. Franz Altheim: „Geschichte der Hunnen, I. Berlin. 1959., 295-300, 305. Abb.6-7. IV. Berlin 1962. 134, 286. Szerinte alán ármaci írás.
b. Szabó Kálmán: Kecskemét tj. város Múzeuma, é.n. 22.
c. Nagyfalussy Lajos: A kecskeméti városi múzeum egy rejtélyes felirata. (Kalocsai Kollégium, 52. sz. Kalocsa. 1936..60,62)
d. Mészáros Gyula: Az első hun nyelvemlék. Népünk és nyelvünk, Szeged, 1936., 1,11
e. u.o: Jazyg nyelvemlék Magyarországon. Népünk és nyelvünk, 1937. 33-51
f. Gaál László: Pár szó a ladánybenei jazignak vélt felirat olvasásáról és magyarázatáról. Széphalom. 1939
g. Nagyfalussy Lajos: Ógörögbetűs feliratok az alföldi sírleletekben; Kalocsai Jézus Társasági Szent István gimnázium 1940 évi évkönyve. Kny. 4-15.1. (Nagyfalussy a Jézus Társaság tagja volt.)
h. Banner János: Technikai megjegyzések két népvándorláskori felirat megfejtéséhez; Dolgozatok, 1941. 161-162
i. Párducz Mihály: - Nagyfalussy Lajos: Ógörögbetüs feliratok az alföldi sírleletekben; Dolgozatok. 1941. 187-189.
j. Ferenczi Géza – Ferenczi István: Az 1979-ben megjelent „Műveléstörténeti Tanulmányok” kötetben (Kritérion) a 14. oldalon említik a leletet.
k. Csallány Dezső: említi a Nyiregyházi Múzeum Évk. XI. kötetének 289 oldalán, hogy az egyik feliratot még égetés előtt, a másodikat az után karcolták az edény oldalára.
Úgy vélem, hogy ennek megfelel az, hogy amikor az edényt megtalálták felirattal ellátva („castus ordo urna”) kiégették, - és amint már előbb említettem, a második karcolat a használó szerzetes halálakor került reá. Semmi ok nincs arra, hogy a rovásjeleket szarmata jeleknek véljük.”
The Ladánybene Sarmatian text
by Dr. Ferenc Fodor
"The Ladánybene vessel.
Csallány D. (Ny. Jósa A. Muz. Évk. XI): ‘This dark gray vessel was found in Ladánybene, in Pál Józsa’s home-land in an authentic appearing Sarmatian grave which was excavated by Elek Kada in l909 and, from here, it was taken to the Kecskemét Museum. The vessel’s material and workmanship stands out from similar objects of the Alföld region. Two runic writings (rovás) appear on the side of the vessel, the first was written onto it before, the other after the firing process.
The vessel is 12.2 cm. high, the opening is 8.2 cm. It was made with the use of a potter’s wheel and it imitates the Roman provincial vessels.
This vessel regrettably was lost during the ravages of W.W.II in the Kecskemét Museum. I learned this from the Bács Kiskun County Council’s Museum Directory, from H. Elvira Tóth, science adviser, in her letter of March 5, 1980. She wrote, at the same time, that she had inquired from Dr. Kálmán Szabó, who was the Museum’s former director, who certified that the find was from a grave of the Sarmatian era.”
The 15 engraved letters of the script – according to the transliteration of Dr. Dezső Csallány – contains a Latin and a Magyar text. The transliteration relied upon the Székely-Magyar rovás (runic) characters. According to the content of the text, the vessel was used for burial purposes.
Further studies have been published by the following authors:
a. Franz Altheim: „Geschichte der Hunnen, I. Berlin. 1959., 295-300, 305. Abb.6-7. IV. Berlin 1962. 134, 286. According to him the script is of Alanic Armacian origin.
b. Szabó, Kálmán: Kecskemét tj. város Muzeuma, é.n. 22.
c. Nagyfalussy, Lajos: A kecskeméti városi muzeum egy rejtélyes felirata. (Translation: A mysterious inscription in the city museum of Kecskemét). (Kalocsai Kollégium, 52. sz. Kalocsa. 1936..60,62)
d. Mészáros, Gyula: Az első hun nyelvemlék. (Translation: The first Hun language relic). Publ. in Népünk és nyelvünk, Szeged, 1936., 1,11
e. u.õ: Jazyg nyelvemlék Magyarországon. (Translation: Jazyg script in Hungary) Publ.: Népünk és nyelvünk, 1937. 33-51
f. Gaál, László: Pár szó a ladánybenei jazignak vélt felirat olvasásáról és magyarázatáról. (Translation: A few words about the Ladánybene inscription believed to be of Jazyg origin.) Széphalom. 1939
g. Nagyfalussy, Lajos: Ógörögbetűs feliratok az alföldi sírleletekben; (Translation: Ancient Greek inscription in the Alföld burial), Kalocsai Jézus Társasági Szent István gimnázium 1940 évi évkönyve. Kny. 4-15.1. (The author belonged to the Jesuit order of Kalocsa)
h. Banner, János: Technikai megjegyzések két népvándorláskori felirat megfejtéséhez; (Translation: Technical remarks concerning the translation of two inscriptions from the Age of the Great Migrations.) Dolgozatok, 1941. 161-162
i. Párducz, Mihály: - Nagyfalussy Lajos: Ógörögbetűs feliratok az alföldi sírleletekben; (Translation: Ancient Greek inscriptions at a burial of the Alföld region.) Dolgozatok. 1941. 187-189.
j. Ferenczi, Géza – Ferenczi, István: Published in 1979 in the volume of „Műveléstörténeti Tanulmányok” (Kritérion publishers) on page 14.
K. Csallány, Dezső: mentions in the Nyiregyházi Muzeum Évk. Vol. XI. page 289 that one of the texts was scratched into the side of the vessel before, the other after the firing process.
I believe that, when the vessel was found, there already was an inscription („castus ordo urna”) which remained there during the firing process and that the second inscription was applied at the death of the monk. There is no reason to believe the script to be Sarmatian.
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