The Scythian - Scottish - Hungarian Relationship, part 2

Hungarian Connections to the Geographical Names

of the British Islesxe "British Isles"

The following geographical names form only a Baedeker-like list. Even so, they contain enough similarities with Hungarian mythology and language to warrant further research into this subject.

 

Aesica is the name of a stronghold and contains the Hungarian word ős (ancestor).

Aran is a mountain. The Hungarian river, mountain and county name, Aranyos, is identical to it and it is connected to the word arany (shine in ancient times, now gold).

Armagh is a stronghold, built in the fifth century. According to legend, it was built by queen Macha. Her ancestor, the fairy, Macha, bore twin boys from her marriage to a mortal. The Magyar, or Makar origin legends are based upon the twin sons of Magor, the Sun god. The names and the twins point to a common origin of this legend. According to this legend the Irish society had its origins in the fairy-folk, just as did the Magyar.

Avebury is famous for its stone circles. The island’s first agriculture was practiced near the Windmill Hill (Szélmalom domb). Silburyxe "Silbury"’s hill was 50 ft. high. It is affiliated with the many Szilxe "Szil" place names we discussed in connection with the Sarmatian-Magyar presence in the Carpathianxe "Carpathian" Basin. The word szil belongs in the same word-group as szél (wind). For this reason, I believe the name Windmill Hill is a later translation of the szélmalom domb at Silbury or Szélvár (Castle of the Wind).

Avon is near Bath. These are related to the words év (circle) and víz (water).

Ay.... word particle is present in several geographical names. Its meaning in Old English is yes, good, an affirmative answer. Its reciprocal is the Hungarian with the same meaning.

Aysgarth Force is the name of a waterfall. The Hungarian words and kert carry the same form and meaning.

Ure valley is near the Yorkshire Dells. The first word seems to be connected to the Hungarian word Ur, meaning Lord. (We find a similar meaning in the words Altai Ural and, which translate into “the lowlands call the mountains Lord" or the mountain rules the lowlands.)

Derivatives of the Hungarian word - Bál:

Bala is a lake near the base of the Aran and Berwyn mountains, in NW Wales. In Hungary, Lake Balatonxe "Balaton" bears the same name. Both are derived from the Palócxe "Palóc" Bál, Béla, the name of their Sun god.

Bala is a town at the base of the Aran and Berwyn mountains, at the southern end of Lake Bala.

Ballabeg, the 1000 ft. high Round Tablexe "Round Table" (Kerek Asztal) is a backdrop to ancient mythology. I connect the first syllable of this name with the name of the Sun god, Bál or Béla

South Barrule, Dalby, Glen Maye are famous for their waterfalls

Bally Namallard and Bellanaleck are locations of lakes. The name Bel and leck (luk, lok) words are identical in form and meaning. Kesh, Lough Erne, Lisnakee are in this region also. Kesh is related to the Hungarian kis (little) and the name of the city of Kassa.

Balmoral is a castle. The highest elevation of the region is the 3786 ft. high Locknagar Mountain.

Belfast is the capital of Ireland.

Belas Knap is a 1000 ft. high, Neolithic stone hill with an ancient chambered burial place..

Banna, or Magna lies north of castle Thirlwall, and completely encircles Hadrian ’s Wall. The Hungarian words tér-túr carry the same meaning: the Hungarian fal and the English wall belong in the same category. We may translate the meaning of this word as circular wall, or térfal (archaic use), körfal in Hungarian. Banna itself bears relationship to the Pannonian culture sphere.

Bath is the name of a healing spa from ancient times. Its name is related to the Hungarian víz, English water. It belongs into the same word-group as do Palestine’s settlement-names beginning with Beth, Bath, meaning water, and the geographic names, beginning with the B-S consonantal syllables. All these locales are connected with water.

Bosham, is a peninsula stretching far into the sea.

Boston, has the best harbor of the region.

Bude is a recreational area near water. Its name is part of the above. It is also connected with the Hungarian capital cities of Buda and Pest, which were built on the Danube and has several important hot-water springs, so their names are without doubt connected to the word víz (water).

Caerleon is a city. Its first syllable is identical with the Hungarian kör (circle).

Camlough Mountain’s name is related to the Hungarian kan, kam (male, a protruding part), the lok and kamlik (chimney).

Cornwall’s name and the symbolism of the region bring this name in connection with the Hungarian kör (circle) with the meaning of Körfal (circular wall).

Deva is a city. The name is identical with the Hungarian city of Déva.

Hale’s name is connected with the words hely (place) and kör (circle).

Hunstanton is situated on England’s eastern, south-eastern shores. Its name contains the hun and "ton" tanya, names. The former is the known name Hun, the latter means a holy place, a residence, a settled habitat. The second syllable (stan) may be also a form of stone (ME, OE stan).

Kennet district’s hills are the conical hills of Avebury, and Silburyxe "Silbury". A place named Long Barrow near Western Kennet is a 350x8 ft. burial place with 30 graves from the early Stone Age. It is England’s largest burial place with chambered graves. Malmsbury is nearby, once a residence of King Athelstan. The material of this excavation site is important from a Hungarian point of view.

St. Machar’s church in Aberdeen was built in the sixth century A.D., but its base is an ancient place of worship. The Machar name is without doubt connected with the name of Magyar, or Makar, the Sun god.

The Valley of Manger is here and in it the Dragon Hill; now it is believed to be connected with St. George, but this name leads us into greater antiquity and contains the name of the God Mén. Manger’s name means Ménkör, the Circle of Mén and it is identical in concept with Menhirs, the chorea of various sites. The nearby Wayland Smithy’s vaulted graves are from 2500-2000 B.C.

Mousa’s castle was built without any mortar; its walls are five ft. wide. I don’t have the time-frame within which it was built. The name is identical with the name of the Hungarian county and city of Moson.

Oban is in the Grampians and contains the name of the Magyar Pannon peoples’ name and its title of nobility. The O particle means ancient in the Hungarian language.

Omagh Tyrone is a town in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland. Tyrone’s name is part of the T-R word-group of the Arthurian legends. The name of Omagh means Ancient Mag in Hungarian.

Orme Head in Wales contains the Hungarian word orom meaning the peak of a mountain.

Perth is called "the fair city" or white city. This name belongs into the B-P — R-L word-group of the Palócxe "Palóc" in which the word béla means white light. It is located on the banks of the river Tay and is a variant of the té-lé word-cluster, which means liquid in Hungarian.

Rufus’ stone commemorates king William’s death during a hunting mishap in 1100; his death was caused by an arrow. In the early centuries of Roman Catholicism such hunting mishaps were frequent in Hungary too, in which the boar seems always to have a key role.

Unst is the world’s northernmost city

Rivers:

Bann is a river near Londonderry, and the Giant’s Causeway. The several town names within this B, P-N word-group all contain the name of our Pannonian indigenous population, the Pannon.

Don is a river, and its affiliation with the Don-Dunaxe "Duna:Don"-nedű (liquid) words were discussed above.

The Fens is a territory of 1400 square miles near the rivers "Wash," Ouse, Nene, Welland and Witham. Wash is related to the Hungarian word víz (water), the Ouse is a historical Hungarian name, Nene means a feminine concept, Welland carries the name of Vilona, mother goddess of the Palócxe "Palóc". The island of Ely is situated in a marshy region and belonged to St. Ethelreda in the 7th century, who was the queen of Northumbria. Northumbria contains the Hun name, the ia word ending meaning jó, jav (good, property). Ethelreda’s name leads to the ancient history of the Magyars, but it is also connected with the name of Etelköz, a geographical name of the later Magyar historical times. The ancient memories were Christianized later, but it is clear that the octagon base of the original, towerless temple is the remnant of a pre-Christian structure and religion.

Folyle’s region is rich in rivers, folyó in Hungarian. St. Columba’s stone is here, upon which two ancient footprints can be seen. This stone may have been the coronation stone of the O’Neills who were kings of Ulster. The Giant’s Causeway is here along with Ireland’s most ancient castle, Grianan of Aileach, the capital city of the O’Neills. The causeway is composed of columns, a natural basalt formation. The many names beginning with Bal are remarkable, like Ballingtoy, Ballycastle. Further names are Cushendun, Cushendall, Kesh, White Island. These belong to yet another Hungarian word-cluster, the K-S ethnic word-group. The town-name of Kesh is related to kese meaning pale, white. This etymology is supported by the fact that they are near White Island. This ethnic group’s mythology contained the legend of the Golden Fleece.

Lagan, Leven, Lledr and, Lune are rivers and the names are connected with the Hungarian word for liquid ().

Leach River’s name has not been explained as yet; it is supposed that it may mean something wet, a wet place. Hungarian lék (leak) and the above is related to this.

Mersey is a frequent Hungarian last name.

Nadder and Bourne Rivers empty into the Avon and Stonehenge is nearby. At a place called Old Sarum the remnants of prehistoric structures can be found. Nadder’s name is related to the Hungarian nedű (liquid) the word Bourne belongs to the Avar cultic B-R vocabulary, where the word bor reflects the name of God Bar-ata and mother goddess Bar-anya; the latter is still the name of a county. The word Boristhenes was the name of a river of Scythia. The word vár (castle) is also part of this word-cluster. Sarum’s Hungarian variant is sár meaning shine and was discussed in relation of the Sarmatians. All these names are logical part of Stonehenge’s astronomical role.

Neb is a river with Ballbeg, the Round Tablexe "Round Table", Glen Maye, Mull, or Meayll Circle at Cregneish on its banks, with an ancient burial place with six chambers. The word Neb is identical to the Hungarian nap (sun) which is again a natural consequence of the fact that ancient astronomical places are nearby.

Nevern is a river. On its banks, near Stonehenge, there is a richly engraved 12.5 ft. Celtic cross. For this reason it may be connected with the Hungarian word nap since the cross has been an ancient sun-symbol since the most ancient of times.

Newport — the last particle of this name is identical with the Hungarian part which means shore.

Ugie is a river in the Grampian region. It can be connected with the Hungarian geographic locations beginning with the syllable Ug, like the name of county Ugocsa. It is also connected with the word Ük meaning ancestor, ancestral. The Hungarian river Bug is a B-variation of these; it is also a word of a humming sound, longing and procreation.

Nith is the river of the southern part of the uplands. It is reminiscent of the Hungarian nyit (to open), Nyitra county and river.

Ogwen River and Lake are near lake Bala in Snowdon. Its Welshxe "Welsh" name is Evyri. Its first syllable, Og is the same as the Hungarian óg meaning the highest point of a dome where light comes in.

Ore is a river on the SW. shore, and the island of Thanet is here. Ore’s name is related to the Hungarian word őr (guardian) word, which does fulfill any river’s defensive position. Tanet’s name contains the Magyar God’s and ancestor’s name Tanaxe "Tana", its reciprocal is also connected with the concept of water (nedű).

Ouse flows in middle England and another Ouse in Sussex. Úz is a Hungarian historical name, ős means ancestor.

Roe flows near Londonderry. This monosyllabic word contains the Hungarian word , which means to carve out something, like the river carves its own path. Mythology of the region may give further clues.

Sark is called by the local inhabitants, who don’t speak the Hungarian language, the jewel of the Channel Islands. Here we have to deal again with its ancient meaning, which is related to the Hungarian words ék (wedge, jewel), sarok (corner), and sár (shine).

Seiout is a river in Wales and this name is related to the Hungarian saj, sajó (to flow).

Sid (pronounced sí) means sliding (sí, siklás) in Hungarian.

Soar means száll (to fly) in Hungarian. Linguistically the two words are identical. The name of the rivulet Szele in Hungary bears an identical form and meaning.

Spey is a river in the Grampian territory, which is rich in Hungarian related names.

Stour Rivers are in Essex and Kent. It is a known fact that the names of Kent’s rivers belong into the oldest linguistic strata of the region. I believe it is an S variation of the T-R word-group. The Hungarian river name Túr, a subsidiary of the river Tiszaxe "Tisza" is part of this word-group.

Taf in S. Wales, another Taff River, also in Wales, is connected with the Rivers Severn and Rhymney. The Hungarian geographical names Tab, Fót, Fadd, Fátra belong in the same category.

Tavy and Tawe rivers are identical with the Hungarian word tavi (from the lake).

Tay flows through central Scotland into the sea. The Hungarian and (liquid) words belong in this word-group.

Tees is a river in Northern England which empties into the North Sea. Its meaning may be connected with the above. Its present day pronunciation seems to be connected with the Hungarian tíz words (ten) and tűz (fire).

Teme, Thames, Temes, are identical to the Hungarian river name Temes in Erdélyxe "Erdély:Transylvania" (Transylvania) and all are related to the word nedű (liquid), as its reciprocal form.

Ure and Yore rivers flow in the county of Yorkshire and are related to the Hungarian Úr (Lord) and Jár (to walk) and are part of the Jász cultic vocabulary.

Thourne, Tand, Trent river-names are part of the T-R wordgroup. The Hungarian túr means to dig and we already mentioned the river Túr on the great plains of Hungary.

Tweed is a river of Scotland and is listed as of unknown origin. Several Hungarian possibilities can be offered and this needs further research.

Tyne flows in the region of Lothian and Northumberland. Again the Hungarian and lé (liquid) words come to mind. The name Humberxe "Humber" was discussed earlier.

UskCaervent, Caerleon localities are situated on the banks of this river in S. Wales. The syllable caer is part of the Hungarian K-R word-group where the words circle and city, any circular structure (kör) belong. Its Latin name is Isca Silurum and it was the second legion’s territory. Usk is related to the Hungarian ős, úz (ancient and also the name of a people; presently it is a last name). Isca in Hungarian vocabulary means ancient stone (ka), the Sil syllable is identical to the city of Szilxe "Szil" (pron. Sil) in Hungary; its history highlighted by Sarmatian presence.

Severn River’s history we already discussed in connection with Habrenxe "Habren". It flows near Glouchester. The river Hull empties into it and nearby is the castle and city of Hull. Considering the legend of this river, we safely give this name the Hungarian meaning of “to fall" (like a leaf from the tree).

Whitham’s first syllable means white, the second syllable is identical with the Hungarian ham, hon, hun (ashes, home, and the Hun) names. Its meaning is White home, White-Hun. (Fehérhon Fehérhún); the first meaning is also connected to the English hamlet which means an enclosed settlement.

Wye originates from Wales and empties after 130 miles into the Severn, the ancient Habrenxe "Habren". Wye means váj, to carve, and the Severn-Habren connection was discussed earlier (hab=foam, water).

Yare river gave its name to the city of Yarmouth in SE. England. Its name is connected with the Hungarian word jár (to walk) and it is a part of the Jász (Ion, Iasy) cultic vocabulary.

Yeo is a river in SE. England and its name is identical with the Hungarian word jó (good) which is also a part of the Jász cultic vocabulary and a vast word-group.

Yore is a river in NE. England in the Yorkshire. Its name is as above in the case of Yare river. Dale is a flatland next to the river and is part of the T-R/L word-group and the Hungarian word tál (plate) Considering that because of its flatness it is also unshaded, sunny, this word may also be connected with the Hungarian word dél (shiny).

Ystwyth is a river in central Wales. Several Hungarian linguistic connections can be offered and further research is indicated.

Ythan is a river in Scotland and it is famous of its pearl bearing mussels. Further research may yield a lot of information about the origins of these two latter river-names.

Islands and other natural formations.

Barra is the largest island of the Hebrides; Kisimul castle is located here. One of its hills is called Ben Heaval. The word ben means mountain, the bán a lofty social standing. Its reciprocal is nap, fény (sun, shine). Hungarian ancestors always originated their own name and every important, life-giving substance on which their life depended, from the name of the sun. The word bán originally meant man, son or a reflection of the sun in the Pannon vocabulary, as its reciprocal form indicates.

Colonsay and Oronsay islands grow rare orchids. The first syllable of these names is connected with the Hungarian words kör (circle) and őr (guardian), orom (elevated location, mountain peak), the second syllable with saj (river, water). In case of an island, the water is truly encircling the earth.

Gogmagogxe "Gogmagog" Hills’ name contains our origin legends and these names contain the memory of its ancient inhabitants.

Hengistbury Head is the name of a narrow land-bridge on which early Neolithic habitations and defense structures are found. The rivers Avon and Stour flow here, which we discussed in the above.

High Tor is a 400 meter high limestone formation. The word Tor could mean either a natural formation such as this or a round hill as much as a built structure. In either case it is a male symbol in Hungarian mythology.

Holy Island is connected with Anglesey through a narrow strip of land. Its ancient history is unfamiliar to me, but as a holy island its name probably goes back to the most ancient times.

Iona Island bears the name of the Jász, Ion group. It is a burial place. Its connection with the Jász has been discussed earlier. The word gyász (mourning) is part of the Jász cultic vocabulary.

Islay and Jura islands have the most ancient Celtic crosses. The word Jura is a Hungarian geographical name.

Kew is an island in the Thames. It is noted for its botanical garden. Considering that it is an island in a river the kő (stone) affiliation is acceptable.

Magee island is the birthplace of many legends and cradles many caves and megalithic tombs. It carries Magor the Sun god’s name. The discussion of these legends would fill a separate volume.

Man: this island has been inhabited since Mesolithic times. Its round wood-huts are known. The Romans were never able to occupy it. Its language is called Manx and is almost extinct, only a few names have remained. The world’s oldest known parliament is here. The Manx cat (which has no tail) originates from here. Their fences are formed by living fuchsia hedges. It is a pre-Celtic habitation. The name of the island and the name of the language contain the name of the god Mén, of its pre-Celtic inhabitants. The round huts are peculiar to the ancient Hungarian “sun-houses" (5).

Pen Caer is an island, which is rich in prehistoric burial sites; the graves are chambered graves. The Pen syllable preceding place names is frequent in this region, which points to the Pannon cultic vocabulary and the name of shine and sun (fény, nap). Considering the meaning of the Celtic crosses this name (nap kör = sun circle) is logical.

Porth Oer is famous for its whistling sands. The name is related to the Hungarian words part and őr (port and sentry, guardian). Further we find Porth Isgadan, Iche and Golmon. The name Iche is identical to the name of the Ika township and castle in Erdélyxe "Erdély:Transylvania" (Transylvania).

Scilly’s islands are in Cornwall (150-200 islands) and all hold prehistoric graves. The famous Cornish tin-mines may have been here at one time. This name through the name of the Siculs of Hungary, and later through the name of Sicily is connected to the Hungarian szik word meaning sprout, salt and the Szikul-Székelyxe "Székely" nation name.

Skye, south of it, the following islands can be found: Eigg, Muck, Rhum and Canna. All these have Hungarian counterparts, such as Szik (as above), Ég (heaven), mag and makk (seed and acorn) and kan (male). Rhum contains the M-R word element of Mármaros.

Sheathland, or Zetland is an island (Shetland Islands). The Ronas hill is its landmark, from which a midsummer night can be beautifully observed. The town of Sumburgh’s name seems connected with the Hungarian szem (eye, seed), szemlél (to observe) and vár (castle) words. People who observed the midsummer night from here gave this place the logical name of Sumburgh. This name’s Hungarian meaning is “Observation Castle".

Thanet is an island amidst marshes. It is connected with the Hungarian name Tanaxe "Tana" and the words for settlement and water (tanya, nedű).

A town’s name in Anglesey:

Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwll-llantysiliogogogoch.

I leave its historical identification to the future.

***

References

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Prof. Gyula Mészáros Turcologyst Jazyg nyelvemlékek Magyarországon (Translation of the title: Jazyg Linguistic Documents in Hungary), publ. A Szegedi Alföldkutató Bizottság Könyvtára, Társadalmi és Néprajzi Szakosztály Közleményei, issue 31 and

Wolfgang Seyfarth editor Ammiani Marcellini Rerum Gestarum Libri Qui Supersunt Vol. I. Libri XIV-XXV

Szabó Miklós — A pannóniai kelta személynévanyag vizsgálata. (Translation of the title: Examination of the Celtic names in Pannoniaxe "Pannonia".) Tanulmány. Archaeologiai Értesítő Vol. 91, 1964. 2nd issue, pages 165-174, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest.

Alföldixe "Alföldi" Géza — Municipium Iasorum, Archaeologiai Értesítő Vol. 91, 1964. 2nd issue, pages 218-221, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest.

Gj. Szabó — Iz proslosti Daruvara I okdice, publ. Narodna Starina 28 (1943), mentioned in the Archaeologiai Értesítő Vol. 91, 1964. 2nd issue, page 219, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest.

Mócsy, András Scribák a pannoniai kisvárosokban. (Translation of the title: Scribes in the small towns of Pannoniaxe "Pannonia"), Journal of Archaeology Vol. 91, 1964. issue #1, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest.

Gyárfás, István A jász-kunok története, (Translation of the title: History of the Jász-Kun.) Vol. I. pg. 298 Kecskemét, 1873

Barraclough, Geoffrey Ed.: The Times Concise Atlas of World History, Fritzhenry and White Ltd., Toronto, 1982. p. 31

R.G.Collingwood, R.G. and R.P. Wright: Roman Inscriptions of Britain, Vol. I, Oxford, 1965. p. 583

Spamer, Weltgeschichte 1896. Vol. II. page 770

Ammianus Marcellinus Rerum Gestarum, Book XIX. Chapter II section 10. Also in Edward Gibbon’s : The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Asztalos Miklós, Történeti Erdély, (Translation of the title: The Historical Erdély)A Történeti Erdély Kiadó: Erdélyi Férfiak Egyesülete, 1936xe "Erdély:Transylvania"

László Gyula Kettős honfoglalás (Translation of the title: The Dual Home-Occupation.)

Bárczy Bányászati és Kohászati lapok, Kohászat (Metallurgy) # 117. issue 3., page 121-125. Hungarianxe "Hungarian:King István I" edition.

John Dayton, Metals, Minerals, Glazing and Man. Harraps, London 1978. George G. Harrap & Co. LTD, illustration no. 393, with 32 color plates and 31 maps. Included are a great number laboratory data concerning ore, metal and enamel research.

Hungarianxe "Hungarian:King István I" Panorama issue IX, 1999

Cambridge Ancient World History Vol. 10 p. 370, 1936, 1971

Demokrata, no. 37, 1997 Budapest.

Pesti Hírlap, June 21, 1931, Sunday edition.

Journal of Archaeology, 2nd issue, 1964 Budapest

Lukácsi, Kristóf A magyarok őselei, hajdankori nevei és lakhelyei. (Translation: The Ancient Ancestry of the Magyars, their Names and Dwelling-places) Kolozsvárxe "Kolozsvár", 1860, New Edition by the Történelmi és Társadalomtudományi Kutató Intézet in 1957

O.J. Maenchen-Helfen The World of the Huns, University of California Press Berkeley, 1973

Bakay, Kornél A szkíták szittya magyarok? (Translation of the title: Are the Scythiansxe "Scythians" Scythian Hungarians?) Magyar Fórum Budapest, 1996 June 27th

Palgrave Anglo Saxons

Magyar, Adorján A csodaszarvas (Translation of the title: The Miracle Stag), Magyar Adorján Baráti Kör, Budapest kiadása 1991

 

Source: magtudin.org

 

The Scythian - Scottish - Hungarian Relationship, part 1

The Scythian - Scottish - Hungarian Relationship, part 2